Laylat al-Qadr, also known as the Night of Destiny or Night of Power, marks the day when the Qu’ran was first revealed to Muhammad (pbuh).
The Qu’ran doesn’t mention the exact day that this happened, just that it was during the last 10 days of Ramadan, but it is usually taken to be the 27th day of Ramadan.
It is considered to be the holiest night of the whole year and the night is often spent praying and reading the Qu’ran. It is believed that if you ask forgiveness on this night, all past sins will be forgiven.
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Eid al-Fitr, or lesser Eid, celebrates the breaking of the fasting during Ramadan. It is celebrated on the first day of the month of Shawwal, which is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. This year that will be around 5th July, depending on the sighting of the new moon.
To non-Muslims, the festival, which lasts between 1 and 3 days, is probably most noted for the feasting: lavish, rich foods are prepared and shared and fasting is not permitted on this day. Homes are decorated, gifts are given and family and friends are visited.
But the festival is not just about the food. Most Muslims will wake early and then go to the mosque, or to an agreed outdoor meeting place, where they pray together before the celebrations begin. Eid al-Fitr is a time for thanking Allah for giving them the strength to exercise self-control during Ramadan. It’s a time to forgiveness and putting differences aside, and it’s a time for remembering loved ones who are no longer here.
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. This year Ramadan begins around 6th June and ends around 5th July. These dates are approximate because the Islamic calendar follows the lunar calendar, and months end and begin with the sighting of the new moon which can differ slightly from country to country around the world.
Ramadan is considered the most holy of the 12 months because this is when the Qu’ran is said to have been revealed to the prophet Muhammad (pbuh). During this month Muslims are encouraged to read the whole Qu’ran and to be extra charitable.
Fasting is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, and most Muslims fast during daylight hours during Ramadan, although the very old, the very young and the very ill are exempt. The fast begins at sunrise and ends at sunset and so Muslims eat 2 meals a day during Ramadan – one (the suhoor) just before the sun comes up and another (the iftar) after sundown. At the end of the month, with the sighting of the new moon, Ramadan ends and the celebration of Eid al-Fitr begins